This library was founded in 1817. In 1933 the library became a part of Odessa University.

Today the library contains about 4 million issues, a unique collection of information sources, such as books, brochures, magazines, digital editions. An exceptionally valuable part of it is the periodicals department which contains 60 % of all library stock. As a result of its scientific generality ONU science library is one of the major social institutions of Odessa region now.